A systematic, checklist-based inspection and evaluation conducted by experts.

Carbon Footprint

Also CO2 footprint; shorthand for the volume of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions generated by a specifi c entity. Comprises direct and indirect emissions over the full life cycle of a product, service or activity. Gives a tangible form to the impact on the climate of products or services.

CE mark

Conformité Européenne; by using the CE marking the manufacturer declares that the product is compliant with all applicable EU legislation and that the appropriate conformity verifi cation procedures have been carried out.

Code of conduct

A collection of rules of conduct that deal with ethical values, laws and other aspects of entrepreneurial responsibility, comparable to voluntary self-commitment.


Cost of Poor Quality; refers to costs resulting from quality deficiencies or general faults. Quality cost monitoring is an important source for improvement projects within the context of the Lean Six Sigma programme.


Digital Addressable Lighting Interface; the standardised lighting interface for electronic ballasts.


Design for Six Sigma; a Six Sigma application that takes processes and customer expectations into account at the design stage. The aim is to attain maximum quality and efficiency in the production process and ensure customer requirements are met.


Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nachhaltiges Bauen e.V. (German Sustainable Building Council); the Council’s work focuses on the ongoing enhancement of its holistic certification system for sustainable buildings.

Double stacking

Double stacking is a loading system where a metal framework is added inside the truck to create a second level which makes for optimum use of payload capacity.


Earnings before interest and taxes.


The eco+ label was introduced by Zumtobel in 2010 to distinguish products that provide a special benefit for people and the environment. Eco+ luminaires are characterised by high lighting quality at low energy consumption, and they are made of environmentally compatible materials.

The evaluation process is subdivided into three stages. First of all, the luminaire's energy efficiency is assessed in terms of luminaire efficiency level, light source and control gear. In a second step, the environmental compatibility of the materials used for the luminaire is evaluated. Finally, application quality is assessed by testing and approving the luminaire’s lighting technology. If a luminaire fails to meet the eco+ criteria, its design is reviewed if possible.

Ecodesign Directive

This Directive (2009/125/EC) provides the European framework for mandatory ecological design requirements for energy-related (formerly “energy-using”) products. The aim of the Directive is to gradually exclude particularly energy-inefficient devices from the EU internal market and to support resource- and (in particular) energy-efficient product design.

EDI link

Electronic data interchange across various companies using electronic transmission methods.


Abbreviation for Energy Efficiency Index.

ENEC certification

European Norms Electrical Certifi cation; the European safety mark that confi rms conformity with European safety standards.

Energy Efficiency Index

Energy Efficiency Index; ballasts are classified in line with the EEI, which in turn is based on the classification scheme of CELMA and thus on the EU Directive on ballasts (2000/55/EC).


Energy Performance of Buildings Directive: EU Directive governing the overall energy efficiency of buildings.


Environmental Product Declarations.

Fluorescent lamps

Low-pressure gas discharge lamps with an internal coating of fluorescent material. Also available as compact fluorescent lamps.

Greenhouse Gas Protocol

A widely used and accredited accounting tool for quantifying and managing greenhouse gas emissions.


An international stakeholder network that has drawn up a comprehensive sustainability reporting framework with the aim of making sustainability reporting more comparable, more transparent and more credible. G3 is the third revised edition of the GRI guidelines.


High-intensity discharge; the generic name for halogen metal vapour lamps and sodium vapour lamps.


A HUB system is a star-shaped transport network with a central hub.

ILO labour standards

Standards drawn up by the International Labour Organization to ensure that fundamental standards are respected in terms of working conditions and industrial relations. Along with promoting the social dimension of globalisation and fairness, creating decent work is a key factor in the battle against poverty.


ISO 14001

This international standard defi nes the established requirements of an environmental management system. The overarching goal is to promote environmental protection and prevent environmental impacts, while at the same time respecting socio-economic requirements. At the core of ISO 14001 is the continuous improvement of all environmentally relevant processes.

ISO 50001

Globally applicable standard that specifies generally recognised requirements placed on energy management systems and supports organisations during its implementation. It aims at continuous improvement of energy-related performance and energy efficiency.

ISO 9001

Internationally acknowledged quality management standard.

JIG 101

Joint Industry Guide: material composition declaration for packaging of electrotechnical products.


Japanese life and work philosophy; method of process optimisation involving all staff members across all levels of a company in the improvement process.

Lighting Competence Centre

Vorarlberg-based Austrian Research Centre in the field of lighting, co-founded by the Zumtobel Group in 2003.

Lean Six Sigma

A strategy that targets zero defects and Six Sigma (= top) quality. When Six Sigma is combined with the principles of lean management, the method is known as Lean Six Sigma (LSS). The aim of LSS is to identify and remove the causes of defects and thereby enhance the quality of products and production processes, while at the same time minimising activities that do not add value.


Light-emitting diode; an electronic semiconductor device that can give off light.


Rating system for green buildings developed by the U.S. Green Building Council that defines standards for ecologically compatible, resource-saving and sustainable building.

Light pollution

If outdoor lighting is not correctly positioned or angled, part of the light given off is scattered into the environment either directly or indirectly through refl ection and diffusion. This badly directed light causes the kind of light pollution seen in the “sky glow” effect over heavily populated areas in industrialised countries that makes the night sky increasingly bright.


Lost Time Injuries; the number of occupational accidents that involve lost working time per 1 million working hours. Takes account of accidents leading to over eight hours of lost time.

OHSAS 18001

This internationally recognised Organizational Health and Safety Assessment System standard governs the certifi cation of occupational health and safety management systems. Developed along the same lines as the ISO 14001 and ISO 9001 standards, OHSAS 18001 helps organisations avoid industrial accidents and meet requirements regarding employee health and safety.


Organic light-emitting diode; these differ from conventional LEDs in that they use organic material. Current density and luminance are lower than with LEDs. OLEDs are area light sources.

PEFC certification

Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification: an independent certification system that documents environmentally, economically and socially sustainable forest management.


EU Regulation 1907/2006/EC; REACH stands for Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals. Came into force across the EU on 1 June 2007. REACH covers all (chemical) substances, irrespective of toxicity.


The Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive (2002/95/EC) is designed to restrict the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic devices on account of their toxicity or the environmental threat that they pose, and to accelerate the introduction of suitable substitute substances.


Interest groups that are affected by a company’s operations or which themselves can influence such operations, e.g. employees, investors, legislators, NGOs or network partners.

Total Quality Management (TQM)

A process by which all members of a company participate in creating a culture of quality at every workplace.


Total Recorded Injuries; the number of occupational accidents per 1 million working hours. The TRI rate includes all such accidents, irrespective of their nature and impact.

Voice of the customer

A process by which all customer requirements and feedback are assessed. The findings are flowed into methods such as DfSS.


The EU's Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive which aims at reducing the volume of electrical and electronic waste and promoting recycling. Manufacturers are responsible for organising the collection of waste electrical and electronic equipment from private households.
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